July 13, 2013

Categories and Dimensions

Live Long and Prosper


The Needs of the Many


Our administration favours the many instead of the few.
This is why it is called a democracy.

Pericles (c495–429 BCE)







PROGRESSIVECONSERVATIVE
CollectivismIndividualism

JusticeFreedom
ReciprocityFreeriding
ProductivityRent Seeking

PoorRich
PovertyWealth
ViceVirtue
UndeservingDeserving
DisadvantagePrivilege
LeanersLifters
ParasitesProducers
DeterrentsIncentives
SticksCarrots

Social InsurancePhilanthropy
RedistributionSpur of Poverty
Fair SharesWinner Takes All

PowerlessPowerful
WeakStrong
LosersWinners
VanquishedVictor
SlaveMaster

CooperationCompetition
Prisoner's DilemmaZero Sum
CooperateDefect
TrustFear
SolidarityInsecurity
CohesionAtomization
WeMe
OursMine
Stakeholder ValueShareholder Value

InclusionExclusion
UniversalismParochialism
CosmopolitanismExceptionalism
DiversityConformity
DevianceNormality
MulticulturalismNativism
IntegrationAssimilation

InterdependenceIndependence
Enlightened Self-interestNaked Self-interest
FairnessInequality
SchoolsPrisons
ParticipationAlienation

Social DemocracyLiberal Democracy
Communist OligarchyPlutocratic Oligarchy

Free SocietyFree Market
Positive FreedomNegative Freedom
Freedom as Non-dominationFreedom as Non-interference/td>
NeorepublicanNeoliberal

Public InterestPrivate Interests
Effective GovernmentIneffective Government
Weak CorporationsStrong Corporations

CivilityPolitical Correctness
SolidarityNanny State
OptimismPessimism
Openness to ExperienceThreat Sensitivity

ConfidenceUncertainty
CitizensConsumers
AbundanceScarcity
Risk ToleranceRisk Aversion
HarmPurity
FuturePast
RefugeeEconomic Migrant

GovernmentCorporations
RegulationMonopoly

AutonomySecurity
RedistributionTrickle Down
InterventionIsolation

EducationEnterprise
Human RightsProperty Rights
ExpandersPunishers
MeliorismFatalism

RightsResponsibilities

DiversionIncarceration
Judicial DiscretionMandatory Sentencing
DecriminalizationProhibition
PreventionDeterrence


EqualityHierarchy

AffiliationDominance
RevolutionRestoration
MeritHeredity
RuledRulers

FollowerLeader
PopulismElitism
MercantileFeudal
ProletariatBourgeoisie
LaborCapital


GesellschaftGemeinschaft

SocietyCommunity
Free LaborSlavery
ModernityTradition
ScienceReligion
CommerceLand
IndustryAgriculture
UrbanRural
DemocracyAristocracy
RepublicMonarchy
ProgressStability
ReformReaction
ChangeContinuity


Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)


The philosophy of the Greeks reveals throughout its stages the influence of a number of dualisms.
In one form or another these have continued to be topics about which philosophers write or argue.
At the basis of them all lies the distinction between truth and falsehood.
Closely connected with it … are the dualisms of good and evil, and of harmony and strife.
Then there [are the dualisms] of appearance and reality … mind and matter, and freedom and necessity.
Further, there are cosmological questions concerning whether things are one or many, simple or complex, and finally the dualisms of chaos and order, and of the boundless and the limit. …

Truth and falsehood are discussed in logic.
Good and evil, harmony and strife, are questions belonging … to ethics.
Appearance and reality, and the question of mind and matter, might be set down as the traditional problems of the theory of knowledge, or epistemology.
The remaining dualisms belong to ontology, or the theory of being.

(Wisdom of the West, 1959, p 14-5)


Cultural Theory of Risk Perception


Sigve Oltedal, Bjørg-Elin Moen, Hroar Klempe and Torbjørn Rundmo

[The] empirical support for this theory has been surprisingly meagre …
The report is financed by The Norwegian research Council's RISIT (Risk and Safety in Transport) — program.
(p 2)


Originally [the group and grid theory was developed] as a neutral instrument [whereby] the morphology of societies could be compared [independently of their location] in time and space. …
Mary Douglas [Social Anthropologist, 1921-2007]:
The group itself is defined in terms of
  • the claims it makes over its constituent members,
  • the boundary it draws around them,
  • the rights it confers on them to use its name and
  • other protections, and the levies and constraints it applies. …
The term grid suggests the cross-hatch of rules to which individuals are subject in course of their interaction.
As a dimension, it shows a progressive change in the mode of control.
At the strong end, there are visible rules about space and time related to social roles …
[At] the other end [—] near zero [—] the formal classifications fade, and finally vanish.
At the strong end of grid, individuals do not … freely transact with one another.
An explicit set of institutionalized classifications [keeps] them apart [— regulating] their interactions [and] restricting their options. …
(Cultural Bias, Occasional Paper no 35, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1978)
{The grid-group analysis describes different modes of social control. …
If the dimensions are placed in a two-axis system, from low to high, four outcomes [occur.]




[Each represents a different kind of social environment possessed of a distinct] self-preserving pattern of risk perceptions.
  • The individualistic worldview is characterized by low group and grid.
  • Egalitarians are members of high group and low grid cultures,
  • high grid and high group defines the hierarchical way of life, while
  • high grid and low group is the fatalistic worldview.}
A typical high-grid situation is … where each person has very limited behavioural options.
As grid weakens, individuals are free to act and are increasingly expected to negotiate their own social relations. …
(pp 17-18, emphasis added)

(Explaining risk perception: an evaluation of cultural theory, Rotunde no 85, 2004)

Would you like to know more?


CONTENTS


Progressive — Conservative

Psychological Dictionary

Cultural Cognition of Risk Perception

The Dominion of Fear

Matthieu Ricard

Values and Virtues


CATEGORIES AND DIMENSIONS



Mythology
NationalRacialReligious

Authoritarianism
TraditionalRevolutionaryDemocratic
Hereditary AutocracyMinoritarian TyrannyMajoritarian Tyranny

Capitalism
AuthoritarianDemocraticPlutocratic

SubjectiveIntersubjectiveObjective
ExistentialPoliticalPhysical
LiteratureHistoryScience

RiskUncertaintyIgnorance
What we knowWhat we know we don't knowWhat we don't know we don't know
Known knownsKnown unknownsUnknown unknowns

BodyMindSpirit
ExerciseLearningMeditation
BiophysicalPsychologicalSociocultural
AppetiteReasonSpiritedness
IdEgoSuperego

MineOursYours
GivingSharingTaking
Win-WinWin-LoseLose-Lose

AlwaysNeverSometimes
AndOrPossibly

Empirical KnowledgeIdeological PositionReligious Belief
SciencePhilosophyTheology
IntegrationAssimilationSegregation
SubjectPerceptObject


RetributionIncapacitationRestorationRehabilitation

Power
PoliticalEconomicPropagandaNaked

Virtues (Plato)
WisdomJusticeCourageTemperance

Causes (Aristotle)
MaterialFormalEfficientFinal


James (1907)
Tender-MindedTough-Minded
RationalisticEmpirical
IntellectualizticSensationalistic
IdealisticMaterialistic
OptimisticPessimistic
ReligiousIrreligious
Free-WillistFatalistic
DogmaticalSceptical


Erik Erikson
TrustMistrust
AutonomyShame and Doubt
InitiativeGuilt
IndustryInferiority
Identity CohesionRole Confusion
IntimacyIsolation
GenerativityStagnation
IntegrityDespair


Baron-Cohen
SystematizerEmpathizer

Moral Nihilism — Skepticism — Error Theory
AbolitionistFictionalism

Moral Realism
RelativismUniversalism — Objectivism

Isaiah Berlin
FoxesHedgehogs

Jean Piaget
AccommodationAssimilation


SelfOther
SubjectObject
BoundaryConnection
SeparatenessUnity

VastProfound
MethodWisdom
CompassionEmptiness

Growth MindsetFixed Mindset
FlexibleBrittle
BendBreak
ResistAdapt
Self AwarenessSelf Consciousness
Common GroundCommon Understanding

EmployeeEmployer
WagesProfits
IncomeCapital Gain
SavingsInvestment
ConsumptionProduction
TaxesSubsidies
LiabilitiesAssets

InnocentGuilty
VictimPerpetrator
Freedom FighterTerrorist
ProphetHeretic
CivilizationBarbarism

UsThem
DefendAttack
SuperiorityInferiority
DominateSubmit

ApprovalDisapproval
RewardPunish
IncentiveDeterrent
AdoreDespise
IdealizeDenegrate
WellbeingSuffering

ImpersonalPartial
TolerancePersecution
Level Playing FieldEqual Opportunity
Affirmative ActionDiscrimination

Self-relianceDependency
EnterpriseEntitlement

FactOpinion
CommentaryNews
That which no longer existsThat which may never exist
Anywhere But HereAnywhen But Now

RightWrong
TrueFalse

Things Are Getting BetterThings Are Getting Worse
UtopianismHistorical Revisionism

EmergenceReductionism
SynthesisAnalysis
BasicApplied
DiscoveryInvention

Intellectual HonestySpecial Pleading
Intellectual CourageWishful thinking

ConsumptionConservation
ForethoughtImpulsiveness
Delayed GratificationImmediate Gratification
Long TermShort Term
AwarenessContent

DecencyHumiliation
CitizenAlien

ConsensusPolarisation

Top DownBottom up
RemoteLocal
DeterminismFree Will
MandatoryVoluntary

DivisionUnity
PluralismMonism
Multiple PerspectivesSingle Perspective

Slavery for the PoorFreedom for the Rich

WarmistDenialist
SustainabilityGrowth

SecurityThreat

GameRules
EfficiencyEquity

VulnerabilityResilience
Protection from OneselfProtection from Others

CuriosityComplacency
CognitionEmotion
InformationMotivation
Shared NeurobiologyIndividual Differences

BenevolenceMalevolence

Phenomenological TruthNarrative Truth

SecularReligious
StateChurch
EmperorPope
LaietyPriesthood
HumanistTheist

Ivory TowerMainstreet
Formal EducationSchool of Life
ExpertLayman
ProfessionalAmateur

Moral VacuumSocial Authoritarianism

MultilateralUnilateral
InternationalistIsolationist

UnfitFit
Have NotHave
SubjectSovereign
SerfLand Owner
SouthNorth
SettlerNative
ImmigrantResident
DebtorCreditor
Doing GoodRefraining From Doing Harm
CommissionOmission

RightsResponsibilities
HonestyDeceit

TransparencySecrecy
AccountabilityImpunity

Privatizing ProfitsSocializing Losses
Moral HazardToo Big To Fail

PeaceWar
AppeasementRetaliation
FlightFight
ConciliationConfrontation

EntitlementDesert
NeedAbility
FormFunction
LinearChaotic
ConjectureProof
ExplanationExcuse
ProblemOpportunity
PrideShame


REFERENCES

  • James, William, 1907.  Pragmatism.

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