July 13, 2013

Categories and Dimensions

Live Long and Prosper


The Needs of the Many

[The] needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few …

Nicholas Meyer (1945), Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, 1982.


[Our] administration favours the many instead of the few.
This is why it is called a democracy.


Pericles (c495 – 29 BCE), Funeral Oration, Athens, 431 BCE.


Conservatives exist to prevent progressives from making things worse.
Progressives exist to make things better
(despite conservative attempts to stop them).


peaceandlonglife




(Adapted from Dan Kahan & Mary Douglas)













(Adapted from Shalom Schwartz in Tim Jackson, Prosperity Without Growth, 2nd Edition, 2017,
Figure 7.2, p 136)


Left Wing

Right Wing

ProgressiveLibertarianConservative
SociallyLiberalLiberalConservative
EconomicallySocialistLiberalLiberal


Lower Class

Middle Class

Upper Class

SocialismLiberalismConservatism


Progressive

Conservative

Equality

Hierarchy

Intrinsic MotivationExtrinsic Motivation
Public BadsPrivate Goods
GenerosityGreed
InclusionExclusion
Justice for the ManyFreedom for the Few

PoorRich
SticksCarrots
DeterrentsIncentives
Spending CutsTax Cuts
LosersWinners
ViceVirtue
UndeservingDeserving
DisadvantagePrivilege
LeanersLifters
ParasitesProducers

Social InsurancePhilanthropy
Fair SharesWinner Takes All
Paternalism Self-reliance
EntitlementEnterprise
RedistributionTrickle Down

PowerlessPowerful
VanquishedVictor
SlaveMaster

AffiliationDominance
RevolutionRestoration
MeritHeredity

FollowerLeader
PopulismElitism
MercantileFeudal
ProletariatBourgeoisie
LaborCapital

Community


Individuality

ManyFew
WeakStrong
Long TermShort Term
Prisoner's DilemmaZero Sum
Stakeholder ValueShareholder Value

ReciprocityFreeriding
ProductivityRent Seeking

UniversalismParochialism
CosmopolitanismExceptionalism
InterventionismIsolationism
MultilateralUnilateral
DiversityConformity
DevianceNormality
MulticulturalismNativism
IntegrationAssimilation

Enlightened Self-interestNaked Self-interest
SchoolsPrisons
ParticipationMarginalisation

CivilityPolitical Correctness
OptimismPessimism
Things Are Getting BetterThings Are Getting Worse
Utopian FutureMythical Past
Openness to ExperienceThreat Sensitivity

ConfidenceUncertainty
CitizensConsumers
AbundanceScarcity
Risk ToleranceRisk Aversion
HarmPurity
RefugeeEconomic Migrant

Human RightsProperty Rights
ExpandersPunishers
MeliorismFatalism
RightsResponsibilities

DiversionIncarceration
Judicial DiscretionMandatory Sentencing
DecriminalizationProhibition
PreventionDeterrence

Gesellschaft


Gemeinschaft

SocietyCommunity
ModernityTradition
ScienceReligion
CommerceLand
Free LaborSlave Labor
Natural RightsInherited Rights
MechanizationManual Labor
IndustryAgriculture
ManufacturingFarming
UrbanRural
DemocracyAristocracy
RepublicMonarchy


Bertrand Russell (1872 – 1970)


The philosophy of the Greeks reveals throughout its stages the influence of a number of dualisms.
In one form or another these have continued to be topics about which philosophers write or argue.
At the basis of them all lies the distinction between truth and falsehood.
Closely connected with it … are the dualisms of good and evil, and of harmony and strife.
Then there [are the dualisms] of appearance and reality … mind and matter, and freedom and necessity.
Further, there are cosmological questions concerning whether things are one or many, simple or complex, and finally the dualisms of chaos and order, and of the boundless and the limit. …

Truth and falsehood are discussed in logic.
Good and evil, harmony and strife, are questions belonging … to ethics.
Appearance and reality, and the question of mind and matter, might be set down as the traditional problems of the theory of knowledge, or epistemology.
The remaining dualisms belong to ontology, or the theory of being.

(Wisdom of the West, 1959, p 14-5)


Cultural Theory of Risk Perception


Sigve Oltedal, Bjørg-Elin Moen, Hroar Klempe & Torbjørn Rundmo

[The] empirical support for this theory has been surprisingly meagre …
The report is financed by The Norwegian research Council's RISIT (Risk and Safety in Transport) — program.
(p 2)


Originally [the group and grid theory was developed] as a neutral instrument [whereby] the morphology of societies could be compared [independently of their location] in time and space. …
Mary Douglas [Social Anthropologist, 1921 – 2007]:
The group itself is defined in terms of
  • the claims it makes over its constituent members,
  • the boundary it draws around them,
  • the rights it confers on them to use its name and
  • other protections, and the levies and constraints it applies. …
The term grid suggests the cross-hatch of rules to which individuals are subject in course of their interaction.
As a dimension, it shows a progressive change in the mode of control.
At the strong end, there are visible rules about space and time related to social roles …
[At] the other end [—] near zero [—] the formal classifications fade, and finally vanish.
At the strong end of grid, individuals do not … freely transact with one another.
An explicit set of institutionalized classifications [keeps] them apart [— regulating] their interactions [and] restricting their options. …
(Cultural Bias, Occasional Paper no 35, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1978)
{The grid-group analysis describes different modes of social control. …
If the dimensions are placed in a two-axis system, from low to high, four outcomes [occur.]




[Each represents a different kind of social environment possessed of a distinct] self-preserving pattern of risk perceptions.
  • The individualistic worldview is characterized by low group and grid.
  • Egalitarians are members of high group and low grid cultures,
  • high grid and high group defines the hierarchical way of life, while
  • high grid and low group is the fatalistic worldview.}
A typical high-grid situation is … where each person has very limited behavioural options.
As grid weakens, individuals are free to act and are increasingly expected to negotiate their own social relations. …
(pp 17-18, emphasis added)

(Explaining risk perception: an evaluation of cultural theory, Rotunde no 85, 2004)

Would you like to know more?


Contents


Facts and Fictions

Progressive — Conservative

Psychological Dictionary

Cultural Cognition of Risk Perception

The Dominion of Fear

Matthieu Ricard

Values and Virtues


Categories and Dimensions


Justice

RetributionIncapacitationRestorationRehabilitation

Power

PoliticalEconomicPropagandaNaked

Plato

(Jostein Gaarder, Sophies World, Phoenix, 1991, p 78)
BodySoulVirtueState
HeadReasonWisdomRulers
ChestWillCourageAuxiliaries
AbdomenAppetiteTemperanceLaborers

Causes

(Aristotle)
MaterialFormalEfficientFinal


Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804)

(Michael Sandel, Justice, Penguin, 2009, p 127)
DutyMoralityInclination
AutonomyFreedomHeteronomy
Categorical ImperativeReasonHypothetical Imperative
Intelligible RealmStandpointsSensible Realm

Mythology

NationalRacialReligious

Authoritarianism

TraditionalRevolutionaryDemocratic
Hereditary AutocracyMinoritarian TyrannyMajoritarian Tyranny

Capitalism

AuthoritarianDemocraticPlutocratic


RiskUncertaintyIgnorance
What we knowWhat we know we don't knowWhat we don't know we don't know
Known knownsKnown unknownsUnknown unknowns

MineOursYours
GivingSharingTaking
Win-WinWin-LoseLose-Lose

AlwaysNeverSometimes
AndOrPossibly

Empirical KnowledgeIdeological PositionReligious Belief
SciencePhilosophyTheology
ObjectiveIntersubjectiveSubjective

ObjectPerceptSubject
IntegrationAssimilationSegregation


William James (1842 – 1910)

(Pragmatism, 1907)
Tender-MindedTough-Minded
RationalisticEmpirical
IntellectualizticSensationalistic
IdealisticMaterialistic
OptimisticPessimistic
ReligiousIrreligious
Free-WillistFatalistic
DogmaticalSceptical

Erik Erikson (1902 – 94)

TrustMistrust
AutonomyShame and Doubt
InitiativeGuilt
IndustryInferiority
Identity CohesionRole Confusion
IntimacyIsolation
GenerativityStagnation
IntegrityDespair

Simon Baron-Cohen (1958)

SystematizerEmpathizer

Moral Nihilism — Skepticism — Error Theory

AbolitionistFictionalism

Moral Realism

RelativismUniversalism — Objectivism

Isaiah Berlin (1909 – 97)

FoxesHedgehogs

Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980)

AccommodationAssimilation


SubjectObject
RelationsProperties

VastProfound
MethodWisdom
CompassionEmptiness

Growth MindsetFixed Mindset
FlexibleBrittle
BendBreak
ResistAdapt
Self AwarenessSelf Consciousness
Common GroundCommon Understanding

EmployeeEmployer
WagesProfits
IncomeCapital Gain
SavingsInvestment
ConsumptionProduction
TaxesSubsidies
LiabilitiesAssets

InnocentGuilty
VictimPerpetrator
Freedom FighterTerrorist
ProphetHeretic
CivilizationBarbarism

ApprovalDisapproval
RewardPunish
IncentiveDeterrent
AdoreDespise
IdealizeDenegrate
WellbeingSuffering

TolerancePersecution
Level Playing FieldEqual Opportunity
Affirmative ActionDiscrimination

FactOpinion
CommentaryNews
That which no longer existsThat which may never exist
Anywhere But HereAnywhen But Now

EmergenceReductionism
SynthesisAnalysis
BasicApplied
DiscoveryInvention

Intellectual HonestySpecial Pleading
Intellectual CourageWishful Thinking

ConsumptionConservation
ExtractionPreservation
ForethoughtImpulsiveness
Delayed GratificationImmediate Gratification
Long TermShort Term

RespectHumiliation
CitizenAlien

Top DownBottom up
RemoteLocal
DeterminismFree Will
MandatoryVoluntary

WarmistDenialist
SustainabilityGrowth

GameRules
EfficiencyEquity

VulnerabilityResilience
Protection from OneselfProtection from Others

CuriosityComplacency
CognitionEmotion
InformationMotivation
Shared NeurobiologyIndividual Differences

StateChurch
EmperorPope
LaietyPriesthood
HumanistTheist

ElitismPopulism
Ivory TowerMainstreet
EducationExperience
TheoryPractice
ExpertLayman
ProfessionalAmateur

UnfitFit
Have NotHave
SubjectSovereign
SerfLand Owner
SouthNorth
SettlerNative
ImmigrantResident
DebtorCreditor

Doing GoodNot Doing Harm
CommissionOmission

RightsResponsibilities
HonestyDeceit

TransparencySecrecy
AccountabilityImpunity

Privatizing ProfitsSocializing Losses
Moral HazardToo Big To Fail

DefendAttack
SuperiorityInferiority

PeaceWar
AppeasementRetaliation
FlightFight
ConciliationConfrontation

EntitlementDesert
NeedAbility
FormFunction
LinearChaotic
ConjectureProof
ExplanationExcuse
ProblemOpportunity
PrideShame

EvolutionRevolution
Incremental ChangeTransformative Change

AwarenessContent
ConsensusPolarisation
Slavery for the PoorFreedom for the Rich
SecurityThreat
BenevolenceMalevolence
Phenomenological TruthNarrative Truth
Moral VacuumSocial Authoritarianism

No comments:

Post a Comment